Golfer exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl following application to turfgrass.

TitleGolfer exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl following application to turfgrass.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsPutnam RA, Doherty JJ, Clark MJ
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Date Published2008 Aug 13
AbstractExposure of golfers to pesticides following their application to turfgrass is of concern to regulators, turfgrass professionals, and consumers. Multipathway exposures were evaluated for golfers on turfgrass treated with chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. Air concentrations and transferable foliar residues (TFRs) were measured to assess potential respiratory and dermal exposures, respectively. At the same time, exposure to individuals simulating the play of golf was determined by dosimetry and urinary biomonitoring. Individual golfer exposure was determined in 76 rounds of golf following eight applications of chlorpyrifos and two applications of carbaryl. Estimated exposures to golfers following full course and full rate applications of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl were 19-68 times below current U.S. EPA acute reference dose (Rfd) values, indicating safe exposures under U.S. EPA hazard quotient criteria. Dermal exposure was determined to be the dominant exposure pathway to golfers, accounting for approximately 60% of the chlorpyrifos absorbed dose and 100% of the carbaryl absorbed dose. This study also provides a set of transfer factors (TFs) that may be used to determine dermal exposure of golfers to pesticides using transferable residue data.
Alternate JournalJ. Agric. Food Chem.