In vivo priming and ex vivo activation of equine neutrophils in black walnut extract-induced equine laminitis is not attenuated by systemic lidocaine administration.

TitleIn vivo priming and ex vivo activation of equine neutrophils in black walnut extract-induced equine laminitis is not attenuated by systemic lidocaine administration.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsLoftus JP, Williams JM, Belknap JK, Black SJ
JournalVeterinary immunology and immunopathology
Volume138
Issue1-2
Pagination60-9
Date Published2010 Nov 15
AbstractLaminitis is a crippling disease of horses characterized by an inflammatory response in the tissue that suspends the axial skeleton within the hoof. Pain is a common feature of laminitic pathology and its management is an important component of the treatment regime for this disease. Systemic lidocaine administration is commonly utilized to manage pain in equine laminitis; however, the potential anti-inflammatory effects of this drug during the treatment of equine laminitis have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine if lidocaine concentrations achieved in the plasma (therapeutic concentrations) of horses systemically administered lidocaine are capable of attenuating neutrophil activation and associated inflammation. To identify markers of activation, purified neutrophils were stimulated in vitro with LPS or recombinant equine IL-8 (reqIL-8) and surface expression of CD13 and CD18 was ascertained by immunofluorescent staining. Activation with LPS or reqIL-8 in vitro induced an elevated expression of CD13 as well as a putative conformational change in CD18 detected by elevated staining with a sub-saturating concentration of anti-CD18 mAb. Lidocaine attenuated the activation-induced changes in CD13 and CD18 expression only when used at 30-70 times therapeutic concentrations. For in vivo analyses, horses were administered black walnut extract (BWE) to induce laminitis and either systemic lidocaine (n=6) or saline (n=6) as a control. Whole blood was collected and incubated with or without reqIL-8. Following which, leukocytes were stained for CD13 and CD18. Protein was extracted from laminar tissue and subjected to gelatin zymography to measure matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) accumulation. Results obtained show that changes in neutrophil size, granularity/complexity, CD13 surface expression and CD18 staining intensity occurred over time post BWE administration irrespective of lidocaine treatment in response to incubation alone or with 100 ng/ml of reqIL-8. The mean fluorescence intensities of neutrophils stained for either CD13 or CD18 did not differ between lidocaine treated and saline controls, nor did lamellar MMP-9 content measured by gelatin zymography. Thus, using changes in surface expression of CD13 and CD18 as markers of neutrophil activation in the horse we have shown that BWE treatment activates neutrophils in vivo and this is not affected by systemic administration of lidocaine at levels used to manage pain.
DOI10.1002/jcp.22409
Alternate JournalVet. Immunol. Immunopathol.